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Double Jeopardy
Dual Criminality
Political Crimes

International extradition is the process by which one nation requests another nation to surrender an individual for prosecution on allegations that he/she has committed a crime in the requesting country.  While sovereign nations are under no obligation to comply with such requests, because of a mutual desire to seek justice, many nations have created binding extradition treaties with one another. These treaties set forth specific criteria as well as exceptions. No one nation has extradition treaties will all other nations. The United States is a party to extradition treaties with several countries and US District Court judges uphold these diplomatic interests when deciding extradition matters.

Extradition consists of an underlying criminal charge or conviction in a foreign country, which is a party to an extradition treaty with the United States. While the proceedings stem from a criminal matter, the case is a federal civil proceeding heard and decided in a U.S. District Court with jurisdiction over the “fugitive”.   


Because of the civil nature of these proceedings, the bail factors available under the Bail Reform Act in federal criminal matters are not applicable when arrested on an extradition warrant. Almost always, the arrested fugitive remains in custody for the duration of the proceedings. Nonetheless, in 2016, Ms. Azari obtained an unusual victory when she successfully sought the release of her client, a dual citizen of Mexico and United States, by arguing very limited and narrowly construed “special circumstances” that warranted release on bond. While the client has suffered a conviction for the murder of his spouse in Mexico and is facing over 25 years in prison, by working closely with counsel in Mexico, Ms. Azari was able to seek a stay (a pause) in the extradition proceedings as well as to secure her client’s release from custody on an unsecured bond.


Ms. Azari is one of a select number of attorneys in California with experience in defending fugitives in extradition matters. She is extremely knowledgeable about the applicable defenses that lead to a denial of the request for extradition by the foreign country. 

If you or anyone you know is subject to extradition to the U.S. or from the U.S. to a foreign country, please contact the Law Office of Sara Azari for a free consultation

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